Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) is a term that has been coined to position agriculture as vital in mitigating and adapting to climate change. Our previous blog post on the subject reported that agriculture is currently responsible for 70 percent of water use globally, as well as up to 30 percent of greenhouse gas emissions. As demand for food and thus farming is rapidly increasing due to growing populations, it is essential to not only increase agricultural productivity, but to ensure that the environmental impact of agriculture is minimal. It is equally important to adapt existing agricultural practices so they are able to withstand the extreme weather conditions climate change will bring.
A report from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) published last month, entitled “Identifying opportunities for climate-smart agriculture investments in Africa” looks at how CSA is being applied to Africa. Africa’s population has just passed 1 billion and is due to double by 2050. As a consequence, the FAO has estimated that Africa will need to provide adequate food supplies for over 20 million additional people each year and improve the nutritional status of more than 239 million people. Increasing food production in Africa is essential, but are current farming processes in Africa climate smart?
The governments of 14 African countries (Benin, Ethopia, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and Uganda) have put into place “National Agriculture and Food Security Investment Plans” (NAFSIPs) in order to adapt to slow-onset climatic change and extreme events, and mitigate climate change. The report has assessed these plans to identify investment needs and options for climate-smart agriculture financing in Africa.
Key findings of the report:
Of the National Agriculture and Food Security Investment Plans in African countries examined…
- 60 percent are expected to generate climate benefits in terms of slow-onset climate change
- 18 percent are expected to generate climate benefits in terms of adaptation to extreme events
- 19 percent are expected to generate climate benefits in terms of climate change mitigation
Gambia and Malawi lead the African countries in terms of number of projects that address slow onset climate change as well as climate change mitigation, whereas Liberia and Niger ranked higher in terms of number of projects that address adaptation to extreme events.
In an assessment of the potential for quick deployment of climate-smart agricultural practices, Ghana and Kenya were both ranked as having a high potential, whereas Senegal, and Benin were ranked as low.
The results of the analysis highlight that NAFSIPs already include many climate-smart activities, however there is the need to consolidate and integrate these findings by providing country-specific inputs such as:
- analyzing the most promising CSA agricultural investment options and estimating their cost-effectiveness also considering the expected climate benefits
- outlining investments needed to transform ongoing and planned programmes, activities and projects into proper climate-smart interventions, also identifying the corresponding (public and private) financing sources
- analyzing the profitability of the investments in order to determine the type of finance required
- leveraging existing financing instruments in agriculture with innovative climate financing mechanisms
- designing result-based monitoring and accounting procedures and national registries related to identified financing option